Modern is the direction of modern foreign dance, originated in the United States and Germany in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The similar for the representatives of modern dance is the creation of a new choreography, which, in their opinion, meets the spiritual needs of a person of the 20th century.
The term "modern dance" appeared in the United States to refer to stage choreography, rejecting the traditional ballet forms. Going into use, it replaced such definitions as free dance, dance of sandals, expressive, expressionist, absolute and others.
The principles of this choreography embody the rejection of the canons, the embodiment of new themes and subjects by the original dance and plastic means. Representatives of modern dance in their desire to get away from tradition came to the adoption of certain technical methods, in the confrontation with which arose a new direction. But it has not been implemented to move away from traditional ballet forms in practice.
The origins of modern dance
Ideas, gesture, freed from conventionality and stylization (also musical), is able to truthfully convey all the nuances of human experience. His ideas became widespread in the early 20th century after it had been artistically realized by two American dancers toured Europe. Loie Fuller performed in 1892 in Paris. Her dance "Serpentine" was built on a spectacular combination of free movements, spontaneously generated by music, and costume which was waving huge covered, illuminated with colored spotlights. However, Isadora Duncan became the founder of a new direction in choreography. Her sermon of renewed antiquity, "the dance of the future" returned to the natural forms, free not only from the theater conventions, but also historical and social, had a great influence on many artists who sought to free themselves from academic dogma. The inspiration for Duncan was the nature. In her dance she expressed her feelings and thereby was radically different from any choreographic system. Technique was not difficult, but dancer passed subtle shades of emotions, filling the simple gestures of profound poetic content by a relatively limited set of movements and postures. Duncan did not create a complete school, but opened the way to new choreography. Improvisational dance barefoot, the rejection of the traditional ballet costume, appeal to symphonic and chamber music – all these fundamental innovations by Isadora Duncan predetermined the path of modern dance. In Russia, ones of the first followers of it were studios of free or plastic dance and musical movement.
Another source, which had a great influence on the formation of modern dance, was a system of Swiss composer E. Jacques-Dalcroze – the rhythm. Jacques-Dalcroze came from analytic, out of emotional incarnation of music performers; dance was not an arbitrary interpretation of its thematic program, different parts of the body created a counterpoint to the plastic in which the dancers' movements corresponded to the individual voices of the music. But even in his first major productions ( "Echo and Narcissus", "Orpheus and Eurydice") Dalcroze embodied not only the structure of a musical work, but gave them the emotional content, requiring a purely plastic expressiveness of gesture and posture. the Austrian choreographer R.Laban was against such an unchallenged dominance over the dance music, who became a leading theorist of modern dance. This idea was expressed in his statement without musical accompaniment "Shimmering rhythms."
Laban`s student – Kurt Jooss – sent his creativity to create a new dance theater. Jooss used scenography, music, choral recitation, revived the tradition of the Mysteries and the cult theater. Innovation of Jooss manifested in reference to a brand new topic for the ballet. For example, "green table" in 1932 was the first ballet with a strong political and anti-militarist direction. The expansion of the range of choreography topics and images was contributed by the German dancer, choreographer and student of Laban, Mary Wigman. Her quests were in line with expressionism. She refused movements, traditionally considered beautiful, and thought that the ugly also has the place to be in the dance. Her solo and group performances ("Complaint", cycles "Victim", "Dance Mother" and " Seven Dance about Life") differed with tensions, and Wigman likeed themes of obsession, passion, fear, despair, death. Wigman`s student - Hanya Holm - disseminated its ideas in the United States. Greta Palucca, another student of Wigman, refers not only to the gloomy and tragic. Humorous, enlightened, lyrical themes and imagery also found expression in her art. Palucca introduced in modern dance high jumps technique and has developed her own method of teaching.
American dance “modern”
Modern dance has influenced on classical dance. No one of the major choreographers of the 20th century, including A. Gorski, M.Fokin and others are not passed by individual discovers in this direction. However, modern dance elements are translated on the basis of various ideological and choreographic concepts. Since the mid-1950s the desire to search for some synthesized new language of modern dance has become noticeable trend of foreign choreography. The works of modern dance by choreographers and ballet masters are no longer refer to a particular direction.
There is growing interest in modern dance in those countries where preference is given to classical dance. In 1967 in London, the region's largest center for the study of modern dance was held, at which the established school and team – London contemporary dance theater by R. Cohen. In 1972, Jacques Russilo created a troupe Ballet Theatre by Joseph Russilo in France. The oldest ballet companies in these countries were "Ballet Rambert" and the Paris Opera also include modern dance performances.
On tour in the USSR: Cuban modern dance ensemble, dance ensemble Cramer, Dance Theatre of the Philippines Cultural Center, Dance Ensemble by Paul Taylor, Ballet Theatre by Joseph Russilo and others. Modern dance was identity interpret by modern choreographers Leonid Yakobson (choreographic miniatures on the sculptures of Rodin), O. Vinogradov ("Yaroslavna" Tishchenko), N. Boyarchikov ("Orpheus and Eurydice" to the music Zhurbin) and others.
What to wear to dance modern?
Clothing for the dance is suitable both loose and tight, emphasizing the body. But in both cases, the clothes should be comfortable and not restricting movements. Shoes are not needed – modern is usually performed barefoot.